山东净之源净化工程有限公司

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  • 实验室设计中的废气处理!
    来源:山东净之源净化工程有限公司http://www.hnsfk.com 浏览: 发布日期:2019-06-24
      实验过程中产生的废气、废液和残渣绝大部分是有害的,必须在排放前进行处理。
      Most of the waste gases, liquids and residues produced during the experiment are harmful and must be treated before discharge.
      (一)实验室设计公司采用的废气处理
      (1) Waste gas treatment adopted by laboratory design companies
      少量的有毒气体可以通过排气设备从空气中去除,被空气稀释。气体体积大时,必须先处理后排放。氧化氮和二氧化硫等酸性气体被碱液吸收。可燃有机废液在燃烧炉中可与氧气完全燃烧。
      A small amount of toxic gas can be removed from the air by exhaust equipment and diluted by the air. When the gas volume is large, it must be treated and discharged first. Acidic gases such as nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide are absorbed by alkali solution. Combustible organic waste liquid can be completely combusted with oxygen in the combustion furnace.
      (2)含酚、氰、汞、铬、砷废液的处理
      (2) Treatment of Waste Liquid Containing Phenol, Cyanide, Mercury, Chromium and Arsenic
      实验室设计公司
      Laboratory Design Company
      低浓度的苯酚废液加上次氯酸钠或漂白剂会把苯酚氧化成二氧化碳和水。以乙酸丁酯为萃取剂,采用重馏法回收高浓度酚类废水。
      Low concentration of phenol wastewater combined with sodium hypochlorite or bleaching agent will oxidize phenol to carbon dioxide and water. High concentration phenolic wastewater was recovered by heavy distillation with butyl acetate as extractant.
      含氰废液用氢氧化钠溶液与pH10溶液混合,再加入3%高锰酸钾进行CN-氧化分解。对CN-含量较高的废液进行碱氯化处理,即在pH10以上加入次氯酸钠对CN-进行氧化分解。
      Cyanide-containing waste liquor was mixed with sodium hydroxide solution and pH10 solution, then 3% potassium permanganate was added for CN-oxidation decomposition. Alkali chlorination treatment was carried out for the waste liquor with high content of CN-by adding sodium hypochlorite to decompose CN-above pH10.
      将含汞盐废液调整为pH8~10,加入过量硫化钠使硫化汞析出,再加入共沉淀剂硫酸亚铁。所得到的硫化铁吸附水中悬浮的硫化汞颗粒,共沉淀物,排出净化后的液体,残渣经焙烧回收或制成汞盐。
      The wastewater containing mercury salt was adjusted to pH 8-10, excessive sodium sulfide was added to precipitate mercury sulfide, and co-precipitator ferrous sulfate was added. The obtained iron sulfide adsorbs suspended mercury sulfide particles in water, coprecipitates, discharges the purified liquid, and the residue is recovered by roasting or made into mercury salt.
      铬酸洗液无效,加入高锰酸钾粉末氧化浓缩冷却后,用砂芯漏斗过滤器清除自由基氧化后再使用。减少废物与废铁屑洗剂残留的Cr (IV) Cr(Ⅲ),然后使用废物碱中和沉淀成低铬(OH) 3。
      Chromic acid pickling solution is ineffective. Potassium permanganate powder is added to oxidize and concentrate to cool, then free radical is removed by sand core funnel filter and then used. Reduce the residual chromium (IV) and chromium (III) in waste and scrap iron lotion, then neutralize and precipitate to low chromium (OH) 3 with waste alkali.
      将氧化钙加入含砷废液中,调整pH值为8,生成砷酸钙和亚砷酸钙沉淀。或调整pH10以上,加入硫化钠和砷反应,形成难熔、低毒的硫化物沉淀。
    实验室装修
      Calcium oxide was added into arsenic-containing waste liquor and the pH value was adjusted to 8 to form calcium arsenate and calcium arsenite precipitation. Or adjust the pH above 10, add sodium sulfide and arsenic reaction to form refractory, low toxic sulfide precipitation.
      采用水化石灰将含铅、镉的废液pH值调整为8~10,使Pb2+和Cd2+生成Pb(OH)2和Cd(OH)2沉淀,并加入硫酸亚铁作为共沉淀剂。
      The pH value of the waste liquor containing lead and cadmium was adjusted to 8-10 by using hydrated lime to precipitate Pb(OH)2 and Cd(OH)2 from Pb 2+ and Cd 2+. Ferrous sulfate was added as co-precipitator.
      (3)有机溶剂的回收
      (3) Recovery of organic solvents
      将废醚溶液放入分离液漏斗中,用水冲洗一次,中和,用0.5%高锰酸钾冲洗至紫色,然后用水冲洗,用0.5%~1%硫酸亚铁铵溶液冲洗,去除过氧化物,再用水冲洗,氯化钙干燥,过滤,分馏,收集33.5~ 34.5℃馏分。
      Waste ether solution was washed once with water, neutralized, rinsed to purple with 0.5% potassium permanganate, then rinsed with water, rinsed with 0.5%~1% ammonium ferrous sulfate solution, removed peroxide, rinsed with water, dried with calcium chloride, filtered, fractionated and collected fractions at 33.5~34.5 C.
      乙酸乙酯废液先用水冲洗几次,再用硫代硫酸钠稀溶液冲洗几次,使其褪色。然后用水冲洗几次,蒸馏,用无水碳酸钾脱水,静置数天,过滤蒸馏,收集76~77℃馏分。
      Ethyl acetate waste liquor is washed several times with water, and then rinsed several times with sodium thiosulfate dilute solution to fade it. Then rinse with water several times, distill, dehydrate with anhydrous potassium carbonate, stand for several days, filter distillation, collect 76 ~ 77 C fraction.
      氯仿、乙醇、四氯化碳等废液可用试剂清洗废液进行再处理。后通过蒸馏收集沸点附近的馏分,得到可重复使用的溶剂。方法可以在相关资料中找到。
      Waste liquids such as chloroform, ethanol and carbon tetrachloride can be treated by reagent cleaning. Finally, the distillates near the boiling point were collected by distillation to obtain reusable solvents. The method can be found in the relevant information.
      (四)废弃物的销毁
      (4) Destruction of Wastes
      实验中的固体废弃物不能随意放置,以免发生事故。如能释放有毒气体或能自燃的危险废物不能扔进废物箱内并排放到废水管道内。不溶于水的化学废物不允许扔进废水管道。它们必须在适当的地方焚烧或化学处理成无害的物质。破碎的玻璃和其他锋利的、有棱角的废物不能扔进废纸篓,必须收集和处理在特殊的垃圾箱。
      Solid waste in the experiment can not be placed at will to avoid accidents. Hazardous waste that can release toxic gases or spontaneously ignite can not be thrown into the waste bin and discharged into the waste water pipeline. Chemical wastes insoluble in water are not allowed to be thrown into wastewater pipes. They must be incinerated or chemically treated in appropriate places to produce harmless substances. Broken glass and other sharp, angular waste can not be thrown into the wastebasket, must be collected and treated in special bins.
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